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God's Various Laws in the Bible


 


God's various Laws as recorded in Scripture

(King James version)

  1. Forms Of Government
  2. Citizenship under the Theocracy
  3. Laws of the Theocracy
  4. Criminal Laws
  5. Laws pertaining to domestic relations
  6. Estates – Descent and distribution
  7. Social security and welfare Laws
  8. Laws pertaining to contracts
  9. Religious Laws
  10. Laws pertaining to legal procedure
  11. Tort Laws
  12. Laws of sanitation and cleanliness
  13. Laws pertaining to animals
  14. Laws concerning interest and loans

1). FORMS OF GOVERNMENT

A. Patriarchal. The family being the unit of life, the father as head of the family was the authoritative Ruler: Judges 11:29-40; Job 1:5
B. Theocracy. God was the direct ruler of His people: Exodus 19:3-8
C. Government by judges. The people forgot God. God chastised them by selling them into slavery to their enemies. Upon repentance God raised up military chieftains as deliverers: Judges 2:13-18
D. Monarchy. This was begun by the coronation of Saul, reached its height in David and Solomon, and ended with the Babylonian captivity: I Samuel 10:24

2). CITIZENSHIP UNDER THE THEOCRACY

A. Israelites. Those of Israel who ratified the covenant of Sinai, and later their children, were entitled to the rights of citizenship: Exodus 19:5-8; Deuteronomy 6:1-9
B. Moabites and Ammonites excluded: Deuteronomy 23:3
C. Edomites and Egyptians in the third generation were eligible: Deuteronomy 23:7, 8

3). LAWS OF THE THEOCRACY

A. Pertaining to citizenship
1. Law applied equally to strangers as to natives: Leviticus 24:22; Numbers 15:22-30
2. Jew not to marry a stranger: Genesis 34:14
3. Strangers could own slaves: Leviticus 25:47-55
B. Pertaining to slavery
1. Slaves obtained
a. Captured in war: Numbers 31:7-11
b. Inherited: Leviticus 25:45-46
c. Bought: Exodus 21:2
d. Sold for debt or theft: Exodus 22:3; Deuteronomy 15:12
2. How to treat slaves
a. Israelites could be redeemed from slavery: Leviticus 25:47-55
b. Jewish slaves to be set free in Year of Jubilee: Leviticus 25:39-41
c. Regarded as part of owner's household and possession: Genesis 12:16; Exodus 20:17
d. Could be struck by master: Exodus 21:20, 21
e. Fugitive not to be returned: Deuteronomy 23:15, 16; I Samuel 30:15
f. Freed if ill-treated: Exodus 21:26, 27
g. To enjoy the Sabbath: Exodus 20:10
C. Pertaining to taxation
1. Census taken: Luke 2:1-3
2. Purpose of taxes
a. Valuation of persons: Leviticus 27:1-13
b. Temple service: Exodus 30:11-16; II Chronicles 24:6, 9
c. Taxes: Matthew 22:15-21; Romans 13:6, 7
3. Amount of taxes: I Samuel 8:10-18
4. Priests and attendants exempt: Ezra 7:24
D. Military laws
1. Age of soldiers: Numbers 1:2, 3, 26:2
2. Selective draft: Numbers 31:3-7
3. Exemption from service
a. Leviticusites: Numbers 1:49
b. Certain individuals: Deuteronomy 20:5-7
c. Fainthearted: Deuteronomy 20:8
4. Cleanliness in camp: Numbers 31:19, 20; Deuteronomy 23:9-14
5. Regulations in battle
a. Notice to be given: Deuteronomy 20:10, 11
b. Fruit trees spared: Deuteronomy 20:19, 20
c. Treatment of captives: Numbers 21:2, 3, 35, 31:17, 18; Deuteronomy 20:14-18; Joshua 11:14
d. Plunder: Deuteronomy 20:14
e. Indemnity: II Kings 3:4

4). CRIMINAL LAWS

A. Crimes against the public
1. Bribery: Exodus 23:8; Deuteronomy 16:19; Proverbs 17:23
2. Contempt for the law: Numbers 15:30; Deuteronomy 6:16, 17 Penalty: Deuteronomy 17:12, 13
3. Perjury: Exodus 20:16; Leviticus 19:12 Penalty: Deuteronomy 19:16-20
4. Perverting or obstructing justice: Exodus 23:1, 2, 6; Leviticus 19:15; Ps. 82:2 Penalty: Deuteronomy 16:19, 20
5. Conspiracy: II Samuel 15:10-12
B. Crimes of immoral acts
1. Adultery: Exodus 20:14; Deuteronomy 5:18 Penalty: Leviticus 20:10; Deuteronomy 22:22-25
2. Rape: Deuteronomy 22:25, 26 Penalty: Deuteronomy 22:25-29
3. Prostitution: Deuteronomy 23:17 Penalty: Leviticus 19:29, 21:9
4. Seduction: Exodus 22:16, 17 Penalty: Deuteronomy 22:28, 29
5. Incest: Leviticus 18:6-18; Deuteronomy 22:30 Penalty: Leviticus 20:11-21
6. Sodomy: Leviticus 18:22, 23; Deuteronomy 23:17 Penalty: Exodus 22:19; Leviticus 20:13, 15, 16
C. Crimes against persons
1. Murder: Exodus 20:13 Penalty: Genesis 9:6; Exodus 21:12
2. Manslaughter: Exodus 21:12-14; Joshua 20:3-6 Penalty: Numbers 35:11, 22-28
3. Assault: Exodus 21:18-26 Penalty: Exodus 21:19-27; Leviticus 24:19, 20
4. Kidnapping: Exodus 21:16; Deuteronomy 24:7
5. Slander: Leviticus 19:16
D. Crimes against property
1. Stealing: Exodus 20:15, 22:1-12; Deuteronomy 23:24, 25
2. Arson: Exodus 22:6
3. Moving a landmark: Deuteronomy 19:14

5). LAWS PERTAINING TO DOMESTIC RELATIONS

A. Marriage
1. Ordained by God: Genesis 1:27, 28, 2:18, 24
2. Within the tribe: Numbers 36:6
3. Polygamy forbidden: 1 Corinthians 7:2; I Timothy 3:2 (sic.)
4. Marriage forbidden with:
a. Stepmother: Leviticus 18:8, 20:11
b. Aliens: Exodus 34:13-17; Deuteronomy 7:1-3
c. Sister: Leviticus 20:17
d. Aunt: Leviticus 20:19
e. Grandchild: Leviticus 18:10
f. Daughter-in-law: Leviticus 18:15
5. Divorce: Leviticus 21:7, 22:13; Isaiah 50:1; I Corinthians 7:10, 11
a. Not to remarry woman divorced by another man: Deuteronomy 24:1-4
b. For committing adultery: Jeremiah 3:8
B. Parent and child
1. Father has authority over child: Numbers 30:3-5
2. Father to arrange marriage: Genesis 24:2-4
3. Parents to educate: Deuteronomy 21:18-21; Proverbs 22:6; Ephesians 6:4
4. Parents to discipline: Deuteronomy 21:18-21; Proverbs 22:15
5. Children to honor parents: Exodus 20:12, 21:15
6. Children to be regarded as gift of God: Genesis 33:5, 48:9; Joshua 24:3
7. Penalty for children who dishonor parents: Leviticus 20:9; Deuteronomy 21:18-21

6). ESTATES -- DESCENT AND DISTRIBUTION LAWS

A. Inheritance
1. Sons inherit father's estate: Genesis 21:10-13; I Chronicles 5:1
2. Double portion to firstborn: Deuteronomy 21:15-17
3. Wife not heir, but descends with property to next of kin: Ruth 4:1-12
4. Daughters heirs when no sons: Numbers 27:8, 9
5. When no sons or daughters, inheritance to nearest relative Numbers 27:9-11
B. Real property titles
1. Real estate
a. Land divided among tribes: Numbers 26:52-56; Joshua 14:5
b. Not transferable: Numbers 36:6-9
c. Not permanently sold: Leviticus 25:23-28
d. Value of land according to years after Jubilee: Leviticus 25:15, 16
e. Release of land: Leviticus 25:8-34
f. Mode of transfer
(1) Deed made: Jeremiah. 32:9-14
(2) Taking off sandal: Ruth 4:3-11
(3) Deed delivered in presence of witnesses: Jeremiah. 32:10, 12
(4) Deed recorded: Jeremiah. 32:14
2. Personal property (All property which is moveable, as against real property such as houses and lands)
a. Sale recognized: Leviticus 25:14
b. Pledges of:
(1) Children given as: II Kings 4:1-7
(2) Upper and lower millstone prohibited: Deuteronomy 24:6 ????
(3) Not retained over night: Exodus 22:26, 27; Deuteronomy 24:13
(4) Voluntary: Deuteronomy 24:10, 11

7). SOCIAL SECURITY AND WELFARE LAWS

A. Widows and orphans: Exodus 22:22, 23; Deuteronomy 14:28, 29; Acts 6:1-4; I Timothy 5:3-16
1. Widow to marry nearest relative: Deuteronomy 25:5-10
2. Widow and orphans not to be oppressed: Zechariah 7:9-12; Malachi 3:5
B. Neighbours: Leviticus 19:13
C. The poor: Exodus 22:25-27; Leviticus 19:9, 10; Deuteronomy 15:7-11; Luke 3:11, 14:13, 14
D. Strangers or aliens: Leviticus 19:33, 34; Deuteronomy 24:19-22; Zechariah 7:9-12
E. Poor and needy: Deuteronomy 24:14-15
F. Servants: Deuteronomy 24:14-15
G. Handicapped
1. Blind: Leviticus 19:14; Deuteronomy 27:18; Luke 14:13, 14
2. Deaf: Leviticus 19:14
3. Lame: Luke 14:12-14

8). LAWS PERTAINING TO CONTRACTS

A. Debts: Exodus 22:25; Deuteronomy 15:1-3; Nehemiah 5:10, 11
B. With neighbours: Deuteronomy 15:1-3
C. With foreigners: Deuteronomy 15:1-3
D. Interest: Exodus 22:25; Leviticus 25:35-37; Deuteronomy 23:19, 20; Ezek. 18:10-13
E. Loans: Exodus 22:25; Deuteronomy 23:19, 20; II Kings 4:1-7; Nehemiah 5:2-5
F. Mortgages: Nehemiah 5:2-5
G. Pledges: (See VI. B. 2)
H. Sales: Leviticus 25:14
I. Sales of Land: Leviticus 25:23-28; Ruth 4:3-11; Jeremiah. 32:9-14
J. Of servitude: Exodus 21:2-4; Deuteronomy 15:12
K. Sureties: Proverbs 6:1, 2, 17:18

9). RELIGIOUS LAWS

A. Clean and unclean meat: Leviticus 11:2-31; Deuteronomy 14:3-21
B. Forbidden foods
1. Fat and blood: Leviticus 17:10-14
2. Flesh torn by beasts: Exodus 22:31
3. Fruit of young trees: Leviticus 19:23-25
C. Sacred obligations
1. Firstborn: Exodus 34:19, 20
2. First fruits: Exodus 34:26; Deuteronomy 18:4
3. Tithes: Genesis 14:19, 20; Leviticus 27:30-33; II Chronicles 31:4-12; Malachi 3:8-11; Matthew 23:23
4. Atonement money: Exodus 30:12-16
5. Freewill offering: Leviticus 22:17-20; Numbers 15:1-4
D. Sacred calendar
1. Sabbath: Genesis 2:1-3; Exodus 16:23; Leviticus 23:3; Numbers 28:9, 10; Deuteronomy 5:12-15; Nehemiah 10:31; Ezek. 46:3
a. Punishment for not keeping: Numbers 15:32-36
b. Made for man: Mark 2:23-28
c. Healing on the Sabbath: Luke 13:14-17, 14:3-5; John 5:8-16
2. Passover: Exodus 12:1-14; Deuteronomy 16:1-8; Ezek. 45:21, 24; Luke 22:7-18
3. Feast of Unleavened Bread: Exodus 34:18
4. Feast of Weeks: Deuteronomy 16:9-11
5. Feast of Tabernacles: Leviticus 23:33-44; Numbers 29:12-40; Deuteronomy 16:13-17
6. Sabbatical (seventh) Year: Exodus 21:2-6, 23:10, 11; Leviticus 25:1-7; Deuteronomy 15:1-14; II Chronicles 36:21; Nehemiah 10:31
7. Day of Atonement: Leviticus 23:26-32
E. Crimes against God
1. Worship of false gods: Exodus 20:1-5 Penalty: Exodus 22:20
2. Spiritualism: Leviticus 20:27 Penalty: Exodus 22:18
3. Blasphemy: Leviticus 24:16; Deuteronomy 5:11 Penalty: Leviticus 24:16

10). LAWS PERTAINING TO LEGAL PROCEDURE

A. Judges appointed: Exodus 18:13-26; II Chronicles 19:4-11
1. Moses, first judge: Exodus 18:13-27
2. Priests judge in small matters: Exodus 18:22
3. King as judge: I Kings 7:1-7
B. Submission of cases
1. Ordinary cases submitted to judges: Deuteronomy 25:1, 2
2. Exceptional cases taken to Levitical priest for verdict: Deuteronomy 17:8-11
3. Extreme cases submitted to the LORD for decision: Numbers 5:11-31; Deuteronomy 21:1-9
4. Judges must not pervert justice: Exodus 23:6-8
5. Bribery forbidden: Deuteronomy 16:18-20
C. Where courts were held
1. At gate of city: Deuteronomy 21:19
2. In Hall of judgment: I Kings 7:7
D. Judgments
1. Regarded as from God: Deuteronomy 1:17
2. Righteous to be justified and wicked condemned: Deuteronomy 25:1
3. Sentence to be executed Deuteronomy 25:2, 3
E. Appeals
1. To Moses: Exodus 18:26
2. To priests: Deuteronomy 17:8-11
3. To the king: I Kings 3:16-27
F. Damages
1. For disfiguring a person: Leviticus 24:19, 20
2. For stealing: Exodus 22:4, 5
3. Kindling a fire which destroys property: Exodus 22:6
4. Breach of trust: Leviticus 6:1-5
5. Killing an animal: Exodus 21:35, 36; Leviticus 24:18, 21
6. Loss of animal falling into pit: Exodus 21:33, 34
7. Loss of borrowed property: Exodus 22:14
G. Methods of punishment
1. Infliction in kind: Genesis 9:6; Leviticus 24:19, 20
2. Burning: Leviticus 20:14
3. Mutilation: Deuteronomy 25:11,12
4. Hanging: Deuteronomy 21:22, 23
5. Stoning: Leviticus 24:16
6. Beating: Deuteronomy 25:2, 3
7. Excommunication: Ezra 10:8
8. Imprisonment: Ezra 7:26
9. Compensation for damages: Exodus 21:19, 32, 36
10. Restitution for stolen or borrowed property: Exodus 22:12, 14, 15
H. Method of protection
1. Cities of refuge appointed: Numbers 35:6-15
2. Protection till trial could be held: Numbers 35:12
3. Murderer unprotected Numbers 35:30, 31
4. Unintentional manslayer remained in city of refuge till death of high priest: Joshua 20:1-6

11). TORT LAWS

A. Assault: Exodus 21:18, 19
B. Compensation: Exodus 21:18, 19, 32
C. Damage by animals: Exodus 21:32
D. Damage by fire: Exodus 22:6
E. Injury to animals: Exodus 21:33-36; Leviticus 24:18, 21
F. Loss of borrowed property: Exodus 22:14, 15
G. Personal injury: Leviticus 24:19, 20
H. Rights of strangers: Leviticus 24:22

12). LAWS OF SANITATION AND CLEANLINESS

A. Cleansing the woman after childbirth: Leviticus 12:1-8
B. Test for leprosy: Leviticus 13:1-59
C. Cleansing of the leper's house: Leviticus 14:33-57
D. Cleansing of males with discharge: Leviticus 15:1-15
E. Laws concerning the woman during menstruation: Leviticus 15:24-33

13). LAWS PERTAINING TO ANIMALS

A. Beasts of burden: Exodus 23:12; Deuteronomy 25:4
B. Beasts of the field: Exodus 23:11
C. Mother and young: Leviticus 22:28; Deuteronomy 22:6, 7
D. Enemy's animals: Exodus 23:4, 5; Deuteronomy 22:4

14). LAWS CONCERNING INTEREST AND LOANS

Interest on money was called usury in biblical times. (Now usury means excessive interest.)

A. Taking of interest forbidden among Jews: Exodus 22:25; Deuteronomy 23:19, 20 The money was borrowed for relief of distress.
B. Allowed to be taken from foreigners: Deuteronomy 23:20 Money was borrowed by foreigner to develop trade.
C. Property returned without interest: Nehemiah 5:11-13
D. Differing weights and measures forbidden: Deuteronomy 25:13-16

This article is written by Bob Green, taken from The Open Bible Expanded Edition, New King James Version, Copyright 1983, by Thomas Nelson, Inc.