The Theory Of Evolution is everywhere today, and no one can escape it by simply ignoring it. The idea of evolution is as old as human civilization itself is, but it became powerful only after Charles Darwin proposed his theory in the last century.
On receiving the impetus from Darwin, people started using this theory to explain everything -- from the origin of the universe to the origin of life, and from the evolution of religion to language. Education systems all over the world have become so much permeated with this theory that it is now impossible to separate between evolution and truth. This is the reason why everyone must definitely confront this subject.
Within the Christian world one can see three approaches to the subject of Bible and Evolution :
Approaches To Bible And Evolution: There are mainly three approaches
1--Some people accept the Theory of Evolution as a fact, and completely reject the account of creation recorded in the Bible.
2--Others accept both Evolution as well as Creation as a fact, and try to reconcile them with each other.
3--The third group accepts the record of creation as true, and points out that Evolution is only a theory of science.
The first group -- which accepts evolution and rejects Bible -- stands on a shaky and false ground. They forget that evolution is only a theory, as implied even by the name : Theory of Evolution. No one in his right mind should use a theory or hypothesis to reject something else -- specially if that thing already stands on good ground. As far as the Bible is concerned, it has such authority and reliability (as demonstrated by scientific and historical researches) that one needs more than a hypothesis or theory to reject the accounts given in it.
The second approach, that tries to reconcile evolution and creation with each other, exposes their ignorance of the issues involved. Evolution is only a theory, and therefore trying to reconcile it with Bible (or trying to reconcile the Bible with evolution) is not logical. A theory is, after all, only a theory. It is not an established fact, and therefore it is a lack of understanding that prompts many to synthesize it with Bible. Any synthesis between a theory and Bible is a foolish attempt because the theory has no permanence !
The third approach is the most logical, reasonable, and scientific. It starts with the recognition that the Theory of Evolution is still a THEORY, a mere hypothesis. Over one and a half century of investigations have not brought forward any proof for it, so that it remains only a hypothesis even today. Further, many things that were considered as proofs of evolution have now been discredited. This is the reason why some time ago the Readers' Digest published an article, "Why Darwinists Are Abandoning Darwinism". This article is a non-technical reflection of what is going on in the scientific world.
Several people, most of whom were originally dedicated to Darwinism or other forms of evolution, have started publishing books attacking it all. The titles are too numerous to list in a small lesson like this, but some of the noteworthy ones are: Implications Of Evolution by G. A. Kerkut, Evolution: A Theory In Crisis by Michael Denton, and The Mystery Of Life's Origin by Thaxton, Bradley, and Olsen.
The Theory Of Evolution is only a THEORY, and that also a theory facing serious crisis. As long as it continues to be a supposition -- that also a shaky one -- there is no need to reconcile the record of creation with the theory of evolution.
What About The Fossils: At this point many might wonder, "then what about the fossils". Fossils are remains of life in the past. Most writers on the Theory Of Evolution directly or indirectly imply that numerous fossils are available to demonstration that life has evolved. Since fossils are remains of life from the past, they ought to demonstrate evolution -- if it has ever taken place.
According to the theory of evolution, all living creatures have gradually developed from primitive life forms through gradual changes. Thus each new form must be preceded by numerous intermediate forms, having part the characters of the primitive form and part the character of the final form. Numerous "intermediate fossil" candidates were advanced by Evolutionist, but today not even a single one of them is accepted by the scientific community as intermediate.
This information is not mentioned in the elementary textbooks of biology. Yet you can verify this to yourself by referring to advanced textbooks, research publications, and scientific encyclopedias. The information is available so easily -- from the world of science itself -- that you need not depend upon our words. Investigate it yourself ! Truth cannot be hidden from searching eyes !
Let me mention some of the alleged fossil-proofs and their present status :
Most Biology textbooks mention the "Horse Evolution". They claim that a chain of fossils is available to document the evolution of modern horse from its humble ancestor that lived millions of years ago. Pick up any of the more recent research monographs on fossils, and you will be told that this is false. There is no such chain. Many of the fossils in this series, mentioned in school and college textbooks with confidence, do not even exist !
Other textbooks will tell you about archaeopteryx, the first bird ancestor from reptiles. Unfortunate to the book-writers and the theoreticians who believed all this, recently these fossils were exposed to be fakes ! They were manipulated artificially to make you believe in the theory of evolution.
Still other textbooks mention the evolution of man in no uncertain words. They parade names of fossil-men one after another to convince you that the evolution of man from monkeys is an established fact. Who has not heard the name of Neanderthal Man ? But did you know that the evolution of man is a great myth of the twentieth century ! You can check it for yourself by referring to standard scientific journals and reference books !
A great property of science is its in-built process of reexamination and revaluation of every statement. Nothing is above it. Every generation will reexamine the statements of the previous generations -- and that also in the light of increased knowledge and better testing equipment. The fossils used to demonstrate the evolution of man from monkeys are no exception. The scientific community has been reexamining all these bones, and has been discovering information that is shocking for most adherents of evolution !
According to the latest finds, fossils discovered in support of human evolution so far can be placed into four categories :
Misunderstood Fossils: This includes a lot of notable names like: Nebraska Man, South Colorado Man, and the elder Java Man. These "fossil-men" were created on the basis of insufficient bits and pieces of bones -- scanty evidence for any serious work. The evolution-believing scientists went ahead anyway with their version because this is what they are used to doing in the study of "prehistoric man" -- as pointed out by many encyclopedias and research monographs.
But eventually it was revealed that the first of the above fossil-men was created from pig teeth, the other from horse bone, and the last one from elephant bone. None of them was genuine !
Fake Fossils: Many well known names like Piltdown Man, Java Man, and China Man are connected with some kind of fake or forgery. The first one was created by mixing human and monkey bones, burying them, and then by "discovering them". Over 500 learned publications appeared on it before this deception came to light.
The second one was discovered from three different trenches far apart and then put together to make one "ape-man". Two skulls of modern man found at the same layer were locked up for two decades to deceive the world into accepting this ape-man as genuine.
The third one was described in great detail by its discoverer, but he never allowed any other scientist to handle the original bones -- a practice not in keeping with the spirit of open, honest, and unprejudiced scientific investigation. Some scientists expressed misgivings about it, but having no access to the original fossils they could not check it for themselves. And finally it disappeared in mysterious circumstances !!
Suppressed Fossils: Most scientists are honest researchers, and they do not allow their prejudices and philosophies to interfere with their discoveries. Consequently, most of them make the results of their researches known to others as soon as something is discovered.
Over the course of years, dozens of human fossils have been discovered by scientist and placed in museums around the world, only to the embarrassment of evolution-advocates. Though genuine, these fossils contradict the theory of evolution.
There are many examples of genuine fossils, that were later suppressed by the evolution propagators. The saw to it that in the case of embarrassing fossils, their previous exhibit positions in Museums are changed. Many fossils have even been removed and confined to inaccessible storerooms to save embarrassment. But information about them is coming out gradually.
Genuine Fossils: A few of the fossils discovered so far are genuine, and after revaluation the scientific community has stated that the genuine fossils contain both cent per cent monkey-like creatures and also cent per cent humans -- but NO intermediate fossils or fossil-links.
There is no "ape-man", missing-link, or intermediate fossils among the genuine discoveries. The notion of man's evolution from monkeys is only an unproven hypothesis or a wishful thinking. The missing links are still missing !
The Theory Of Evolution is only a THEORY, a hypothesis, of science. Theories are necessary for the growth of science, but they do not represent facts or laws. They represent information that has not been verified or confirmed yet.
Since the idea of evolution is still a hypothesis, and since most of the presumed proofs have vanished, and since many well-informed evolution-believing scientists have abandoned this theory, there is no need to worry about this assumption. It does not contradict the account of creation recorded in Genesis.
Bible And Archaeology
Archaeology is the science of excavating and studying remains from past civilizations. Using these remains, it reconstructs the past history as accurately as possible.
Bible contains a lot of history, specially about civilizations in which present-day archaeology is also interested. Consequently, everyday they bring up more and more information about these civilizations.
Radical critics of the last two centuries were convinced that this branch of learning will prove to be their greatest tool for demolition. Some of them even went so far as to claim that the historical narratives in the Bible will be discredited in less than one century.
Archaeology, however, turned out to be the greatest friend of Bible. Whenever its finds could interact with the Bible, there it has only confirmed the reliability of the Biblical narratives. So much so that some unbelieving researchers even became believers in Bible after they saw these wonderful confirmations. Today there is no ancient book that stands vindicated like the Bible.
Bible And Archeology
Archaeology in the Biblical lands often gives us new insights into the civilization which existed at the same time as the Old Testament people. Bible critics used to claim that Moses could not have been the author of the Pentateuch (the first five books of Bible) because people were illiterate at that time. But archaeological discoveries confirmed that not only was writing widely diffused long before Moses, but also that the Egyptians who trained him were highly skilled in Mathematics, Astronomy, Architecture and many other related disciplines.
The investigations of Sir Leonard Wooley at the Ur of the Chaldees has shown that Abraham's mother town was highly civilized. Ur was a brick-built Sumerian town dominated by a huge temple-mound, built of bricks and called a Ziggurat. This tower, patterned after the Tower of Babel is now the tallest mound and in Abraham's time it was the most conspicuous building in the city.
A good amount of information has been discovered about the cities, roads, streets and houses of the Old Testament times. Clay images have been found in private chapels, that might explain the family gods such as the teraphim that Rachel had stolen from her father.
Clay tablets have been found which contain common laws and legal decisions, receipts for business transactions, temple hymns, mathematical tables with formulae for calculating square and cube roots, problems for students, and writing exercises. In the temple storehouse receipts were found for countless objects, including sheep, cheese, wool, copper ore, oil for lubricating hinges, and payrolls for the female employees.
It is also evident from documents discovered that merchants kept a record of their business and many educated people had personal libraries of religious works. All of this indicates how literate the people of Abraham's times were.
Many times sculptures and pictures are discovered which even tell us what those people looked like and what types of cloths they wore. A picture of Jews was discovered which dates back to about 1892 B.C. (probably from the era of Abraham). According to it, men wore woolen tunics made by sewing strips of coloured cloths together, leaving one shoulder bare. The women's garments were very much longer and they wore sandals.
Collecting all the available archaeological data has helped historians to construct a very detailed history of the lands of Egypt, Babylon, and Assyria.
Also, we now know of a large number of kings belonging to various dynasties. Some of them like Shishak of Egypt, Sennacherib of Assyria, and Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon are well known to the Bible readers. Several kings of Israel like Omri, Ahab, Menahem, Pekah, and Hosea are mentioned in Assyrian records. Reference are also found about kings of Judah like Hezekiah, Manasseh, and Jehoiachin etc.
The order in which metals have been mentioned in the Bible, and the order in which they have been found in archaeological discoveries is strikingly similar. Gold and silver were plentiful from very early times, but iron came into use only after 1400 B.C. The same is the order seen in the Bible.
According to archaeology, sheep and cattle were domesticated in Neolithic times, and asses were used for transport from the beginning of the early Bronze age. Horses came to man's service later. Bones and teeth of camels have been found at several sites, dating from the Middle Bronze Age. All of this sequence is in the same order as they are mentioned in the Bible.
The order in which a certain thing appears in history, and the order in which the same thing is mentioned in historical documents is a good test of the accuracy of these documents. Biblical history passes this test in every narrative that archaeology is at present capable of testing.
This limited discussion cannot look into all the archaeological details pertaining to the Bible, but what has been mentioned above is enough to point out the general confirmation of Bible by archaeology. Much more information is available in many excellent treatises and technical journals devoted to Biblical and Middle Eastern archaeology. Anyone with special interest in this subject can refer to these publications.
New Testament Archeology
Compared to the four thousand years of history recorded in the Old Testament, the New Testament touches less than one century. Consequently it has fewer references to persons, places, and events. Still an unbelievable amount of information has come up related to New Testament.
There are numerous references to the Lord Jesus in secular literature -- writings that do not have any connection with the Bible. In our library, we have at least 35 such references to Lord Jesus discovered from non Biblical sources. Then there are numerous stories and places discovered by archaeologists that attest to the Lord Jesus and disciples as historical persons.
The writer of the world famous book BEN HUR had originally set about to disprove the existence of Lord Jesus. But in the process of his investigations he was so much overwhelmed with proofs for the existence of the Lord Jesus that he became a Christian, and then put down his historical discoveries in the form of his well- known novel BEN HUR.
Similar is the story behind the book WHO MOVED THE STONE, the writer of which started his investigation in order to disprove the story of resurrection of Jesus. But his careful investigations convinced him that if the matter of resurrection were brought before a court for examination then there is sufficient evidence to accept the resurrection as a fact testified by numerous eyewitnesses. Thus convinced of the truth of resurrected Jesus, he wrote down the above mentioned book about the open grave of Lord Jesus.
It has now been established with sufficient authority that the books of the New Testament are definitely as ancient as are believed by Christians, and that they were indeed written by the persons whose names are connected with these books.
In the last century it was the fashion of the times to claim that the New Testament books were written a long time after the time that Christians usually assign to these books. This implied two things : these books were not written by authors like Paul whose names are connected with these books. Secondly, since the books were written very late after the time of Lord Jesus their reliability was highly suspect. But today we know that all the books of New Testament were complete by 90 A.D.
Manuscript fragments are available that indicate that some of the books were written before 50 AD when the eyewitnesses were still alive so that sufficient historical facts were available to the writers. Further, some of the eyewitnesses were hostile to Christians, and therefore when they were alive it was impossible for Christians to circulate false documents about Lord Jesus.
Miniature images of Diana, that are mentioned by Dr. Luke in the book of Acts, have been found. The Areopagus, or Mars Hill, where Paul gave his discourse in front of the intellectuals can still be seen in quite a good condition. The alter dedicated to the "unknown god" has also been discovered !
Coins used for taxation, imprinted with the likeness and image of Caesar, have been discovered among numerous other Roman coins. This is the coin about which the Lord had said "Render to Caesar, that are Caesar's, and to God the things that are God's" (Mark 12:17). Names similar to many of those mentioned in the New Testament have been found in abundance. Many of the persons mentioned there have been found mentioned in historical sources also.
The census at the time of Lord Jesus' birth was disputed by many who maintained that censuses were neither customary nor known at that time. But discoveries that followed not only disproved this position, but have also provided a good amount of information about the actual census mentioned in the Gospels.
Many attacked the Gospel of John on the ground that such profound theology was not possible at that time, and that it must have taken it a long time to grow into this mature form. But manuscripts of this Gospels have been discovered that show that the gospel was indeed written in the same mature form in the first century itself.
The Greek language used in the New Testament was the subject of speculation for a long time because this variety of Greek language was not discovered anywhere else. But in the last two centuries tens of thousands of manuscripts have been discovered that have revealed the secrets of this language -- a dialect that was spoken by the common man at the time of the Lord Jesus. Known today as the Koine Greek, these finds have produced such insight into this language that one can understand the New Testament better than any other book from the ancient world.
Every God-fearing Christian should know at least something about the logical foundations of the Christian faith. We live in the age of reason, and it is natural for people to ask reasons for our faith. You should be ready to reply before they fire the question at you. The Christian can rest assured that an unprejudiced investigation of Biblical history will always come out in favour of this Book !
A course like this became necessary because a determined crowd all over the world is making a lot of noise against the Bible, confusing those people who have not seen both the sides of the picture. This crowed is made up of many scientists, philosophers, thinkers, educators, writers, rationalists, atheists, and special-interest groups. Some of these people are basically sincere, but delusioned into believing a lie. On the other hand, many in this group are highly prejudiced against Bible, and are determined to spread their doctrines using subtle techniques of mind-alteration.
Tens of thousands of individuals and thousands of organizations around the world know that if their way of life is to find acceptance then their philosophy as to triumph. This is the reason why they are using techniques of propaganda to alter the minds and attitudes of entire generations. They work through the education system, video, audio, and print media. They are systematically exploiting all available channels of propaganda to impress their false philosophy upon people. The results are obvious.
Today many educated people are confused about the relationship between Bible/Science/Evolution. Books attacking Bible become bestsellers; Christian students face strong attacks and mockery from their teachers and fellow students. This is all because they have been shown only one side of the reality. In this course, however, we have shown you the other side so that you can see through all this deception.
Science has NOT discredited the Bible. Evolution is NOT an established fact of science. Archaeology demonstrates that Bible is the most reliable ancient book.
What Did We Study: We studied four main things, and let us review them
1--What Is Science: We saw that science is the result of man's quest to explore the Universe. It is the objective and systematic study of matter and energy.
Modern science came into existence as a direct consequence of the Protestant Reformation, as recognized even by Non Christian scholars. Therefore only a blind person will claim that there is a conflict between Bible and science.
Physical sciences deal only with things that are matter and energy. Biological sciences deal only with biology, and historical and sociological sciences with history and sociology. Every branch has its own methods of proving/disproving information, but the same techniques are inadequate when used in other branches of learning.
Science is made up of facts as well as theories. Both are necessary for the growth of science, but of these two only FACTS are known for sure. Theories keep changing, and many of them even get abandoned in the course of time.
2--Bible And Science: Statements of Bible have never contradicted any fact of science. On the other hand, no fact of science has ever contradicted any statement of Bible.
Further, hundreds of statements in Bible contained scientific truth thousands of years before the scientific establishment discovered them.
3--Bible And Evolution: The theory of evolution is only a THEORY as the name itself suggests. About two centuries of investigations have not succeeded in establishing it as a fact.
Billions of fossils have been discovered, but they have not provided even a single intermediate form. At the same time, whatever fossils were thought to be intermediate (less than two dozen) have vanished from these scene due to recent investigations.
Man's evolution from monkeys or monkey-like creatures is only a supposition, and there is NO fossils proof for it. Rather, recent findings have shown that modern man is as old as monkeys in the fossil record.
Since Evolution is only a hypothesis, there is no question of reconciling it with the record of Creation. Let it first become a fact of science, and then one can think further.
4--Bible And Archaeology: Archaeology is the science of excavating and studying remains from past civilizations. Using these remains, it reconstructs the past history as accurately as possible.
Bible contains a lot of history, specially about civilizations in which current archaeology is also interested. Everyday they are bringing up more and more information about these civilizations.
Radical critics of the last two centuries were convinced that this branch of learning will prove to be their greatest tool of demolition. Some of them even went so far as to say that the historical narratives in Bible will be discredited in less than one century.
Archaeology, however, turned out to be the greatest friend of Bible. Wherever its finds could interact with the Bible, there it has only confirmed the reliability of the Biblical narrative. So much so that some unbelieving researchers even became believers in Bible after they saw these wonderful confirmations. Today there is no ancient book that stands vindicated like the Bible.